Testosterone is a hormone that is produced in the testicles, in special Leydig cells. The testicles also produce sperm in another type of cell – Sertoli cells. The coordinated work of these two types of cells ensures normal sexual and reproductive function in men.
The process of formation of testosterone (like other hormones) is under the control of the central nervous system, namely the pituitary gland – an organ the size of a pea, but whose role is enormous – it is a kind of conductor of the hormonal orchestra of the whole organism. Testosterone production is regulated by the so-called luteinizing hormone.
Testosterone – Main role in the male body
In men, testosterone is produced from the 9th week of intrauterine life. About 95 percent. Testosterone is produced by the parenchymal parenchyma cells (Leydig cells), the remainder being made in the adrenal glands. What are the functions of testosterone in men? Testosterone is responsible for:
- Development of male genital organs and maintaining their functions in adulthood – under its influence, the development of testicles, seminal vesicles, scrotum, prostate gland.
- Sexual initiation
- The course of spermatogenesis (sperm production)
- Development of male hair type
- Proper setting of the vocal cords
- The breakdown of adipose tissue
Stimulation and maintenance of sexual functions and shaping the male behavioral profile. Has an anabolic effect, e.g. influencing the growth of muscle mass as a result of the overgrowth of muscle cells without increasing their number.
Stimulating the growth of long bones through synergistic action with growth hormone. Increasing the production of clotting factors, lipase, sialic acid, alpha1 antitrypsin, and haptoglobin.
The testes of an adult male produce about 4-7 mg of testosterone daily, but its concentration varies depending on emotions and health. If you need more, then it’s better to use a testosterone booster.
The norm is 2.2–9.8 ng (nanograms)/ml of blood. From the age of 18, a man’s testosterone level remains high.
Later it gradually lowers. Between the ages of 20 and 80, it drops by over 50%. How quickly this process progresses depends on the state of health, lifestyle, and diet.
Men react individually to testosterone deficiency. Some people do not notice it, others develop ailments that could be compared to those experienced by women during the menopause.
Testosterone reduction may also be the result of long-term stress, alcohol abuse, and smoking. It is also known that certain diseases contribute to this: atherosclerosis, diabetes, or testicular diseases.
When there is not enough of this hormone, the silhouette of a man takes on a feminine shape – hips round, the belly and breasts are outlined. Less hair, testicles shrink.
Interest in sex decreases, and sometimes it completely disappears. There is unjustified fatigue, low self-esteem, apathy. You should use the best testosterone booster to increase it.
Important info about testosterone
Small doses of testosterone can have a beneficial effect on the circulatory system and the heart. However, with long administration of the hormone, an increase in cholesterol levels (increases LDL and decreases HDL) and triglycerides is observed, which causes cardiovascular disease.
In addition, the hormone promotes the clumping of platelets in men, and in women, it increases the risk of hormone-dependent cancers, such as cancer of the nipple and endometrium. It also causes the growth of the endometrium, which is the lining of the uterus.
Testosterone – levels throughout the day
From 8 a.m. to noon, a man’s testosterone level remains at its highest. So he is bursting with energy, he does not lack self-confidence, he is in top shape thanks to the perfect coordination of all senses.
Between 1 pm and 5 pm, testosterone levels drop. This is the best time for teamwork because the man is still in a good mood. Low testosterone can be a problem.
It is also a good time for difficult conversations. When a man gets rid of his excess energy, it is easier to get along with him because he is more compliant and reveals good emotions.
Testosterone – role in the female body
The physiological importance of androgens in women, including testosterone, is difficult to establish, and their effect is mainly related to the effects on bone metabolism, mood, and libido.
In women, about 50 percent of testosterone is formed peripherally. The peripheral production of testosterone from androstenedione takes place mainly in the liver, adipose tissue, and skin. In contrast, about half of the rest is produced in the ovaries and in the reticular layer of the adrenal cortex.
Total daily testosterone production is around 100-400 micrograms. The amount of testosterone in women changes along with the course of the menstrual cycle, reaching the lowest concentration in the early follicular phase.
In terms of daily changes, its highest concentration in peripheral blood can be observed in the early morning hours. Thus, you need testosterone supplements.
In the period between 20 and 40-45 years of age reaches a 50% decrease in blood testosterone concentration, and the observed relationship concerns both the free and the bound hormone fractions. Don’t forget about low testosterone symptoms in old age.
Testosterone as a drug
Testosterone can also be administered externally as a drug. Testosterone esters are used intramuscularly: heptanoate, propionate, cypionate. Testosterone can be administered transdermally in the form of a gel, 9-14 percent is absorbed through the skin. Administered dose, plasma concentrations increase slowly, reaching equilibrium by day 2.
The indications for the external use of testosterone in men are:
- Primary and secondary male hypogonadism
- Delayed puberty in boys
- Post-castration teams
- Impotence from testosterone deficiency
- Menopausal disorders
- Disorders of spermatogenesis
In healthy men, externally administered testosterone inhibits the secretion of the LH hormone, which leads to the inhibition of endogenous testosterone secretion. In high doses, it also inhibits the secretion of the hormone FSH, resulting in the inhibition of spermatogenesis.
Use is limited in women. It can exceptionally be used in disorders related to hyperestrogenism. In women, externally administered testosterone has an estrogen antagonist effect, reduces excessive bleeding, painful swelling of the breasts before menstruation, inhibits the secretion of gonadotrophins from the pituitary gland, lactation and the metastasis in breast cancer.