Blood pressure is one of the most basic diagnostic parameters. The blood pressure test is usually one of the first activities that the doctor performs during an appointment, but you can successfully monitor it yourself at home. Find out what the norms for blood pressure are, and what high or low values may be.
Normal blood pressure is a parameter that tells you how hard your blood pushes against the walls of large arteries. It is for this reason that the measurement is taken on the upper arm and not on the forearm, for example. The pressure is slightly different when the heart contracts and sends blood to the arteries (systolic pressure) and when it relaxes (diastolic pressure). Therefore, after the measurement, two values are always given and both of them are important from a diagnostic point of view.
The norm of blood pressure
Blood pressure is a value that fluctuates greatly. It depends, among other things, on such rapidly changing parameters as body hydration or nervousness. Hence, it is sometimes referred to as the “white coat syndrome”. The phenomenon is that patients become nervous before a medical examination, and therefore their blood pressure rises and actually indicates an incorrect value. In the long term, blood pressure also fluctuates in various ways, for example with age.
The average blood pressure in an adult human is 120/80 mm Hg (the systolic pressure is given first). However, these values may vary within certain ranges: systolic blood pressure is usually in the range of 90-135 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure in the range of 50-90 mm Hg.
Blood pressure in children is slightly lower, averaging 110/75 mm Hg. In newborns, this value is even lower and fluctuates around 102/55 mm Hg.
High blood pressure (hypertension)
We talk about hypertension when the systolic blood pressure exceeds 140 mm Hg or the diastolic blood pressure chart is higher than 90 mm Hg. However, it is still mildly elevated blood pressure. Then we deal with moderate hypertension, and above 180 mm Hg for systolic pressure and 110 mm Hg for diastolic pressure we are talking about severe hypertension. In the vast majority of cases, the disease is of a primary nature, which means that it is impossible to isolate one particular cause that provokes an increase in blood pressure.
Hypertension is very dangerous for the circulatory system and significantly increases the risk of its diseases, so it is necessary to try to correct it. This is usually achieved through lifestyle changes (limiting salt, coffee and alcohol consumption, playing sports, quitting smoking, shedding extra pounds). In extreme cases, the doctor decides to start pharmacological therapy.
Low blood pressure (hypotension)
Too low blood pressure is a much rarer problem than high blood pressure. It is estimated that about 15 percent of them struggle with it. We refer to it when systolic blood pressure is below 90 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure is below 50 mm Hg. People who struggle with hypotension are drowsy and distracted, complaining of headaches, weakness, deteriorated mood. It all depends on blood types.
It is recommended that people suffering from hypotension should exercise regularly, drink more fluids (including coffee), and increase their salt intake. If there are indications for this, the doctor prescribes pharmacological therapy. One of the measures used in this case is caffeine.
People with high or low blood pressure need to see a doctor regularly and follow all of his or her recommendations. The fact is that timely medical care and prevention can reduce the risks of health problems. It’s worth noting that you can normalize your blood pressure and keep it at a good level with proper nutrition, certain medications, and lifestyle choices. All of these factors can help you feel better and enjoy each day.
You also need to understand that there are many concomitant diseases that cause or result from problems with blood pressure. All these points must be discussed with your doctor or choose the correct format of treatment in order not to have problems in the future. A lot of ha diseases can be defeated at an early stage, so you should be more responsible for your personal health.